Friday, November 26, 2010

Град Твърдица в османски документи от 15 век

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Въз основа на молба от читател извърших справка в документи на османотурски език от 15 век за името и статута на Твърдица (град Твърдица, Сливенска област).

Прегледах подробно документ от 1472 г., съхраняван в отдел “Ориенталски сбирки” под сигнатура ОАК 94/73 (може да бъде открит и под сигнатура ПД 17/27). Архивната единица представлява регистър (дефтер) на акънджии от районите на Нова Загора, Казанлък, Стара Загора, Пловдив, Хасково и Чирмен. По-подробна информация за документа е дадена на с. 175 в т. 2 на “Османотурска дипломатика и палеография” с автор Борис Недков.

Твърдица се споменава на л. 4б от дефтера като село, спадащо към нахия Нова Загора, с изписване وردیج کبران и са изброени 76 християнски мъжки имена. Най-близкото възможно предаване на османотурския текст с кирилица е “ВЪРДИЧ-и ГЕБРАН”.

В друг регистър, тимарски от приблизително същия период - края на 15 век (сигн: ОАК 45/29), Твърдица е записана като وردج, което може да бъде предадено на кирилица като “ВЪРДИЧ”. Този регистър е преведен от Руси Стойков и е публикуван в поредицата “Турски извори за българската история” т. 2.

В по-късен период Твърдица се среща в османотурските извори изписана предимно като دوردجه, което отговаря най-точно на “ДВЪРДИДЖА” - вж. Андреев, Стефан. Речник на селищни имена и названия на административно-териториални единици в българските земи през 15-19 век. София, 2002 г.

Важно е да се подчертае, че по никакъв начин не може да се говори за “превод” на топонима на турски език, а по-скоро за опит на османските администратори да предадат с арабска графика славянското “Твърдица”. Пропускането на звука “Т” или “Д” в документите от втората половина на 15 в. най-вероятно е грешка на писаря, недочул началния звук. Няма абсолютно никаква възможност началният звук от наименованието да бъде прочетен като “Ф”.

Съставката “гебран” (изписвана в българската научна книжнина и като “геберан” или “гюберан“) обозначава християнския характер на селището (за което говори и наличието единствено на християнски лични имена в регистъра от 1472 г.).

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